# Math is hard for AI to learn | Jay McClelland and Lex Fridman

TLDRIn a discussion on mathematical cognition, Jay McClelland likens mathematics to a tool for exploring idealized worlds with precise relationships, which often have real-world applications. He emphasizes the importance of both intuitive understanding and formal logic in mathematical discovery. McClelland draws parallels between the development of mathematical thought and language acquisition, suggesting that immersion in mathematical concepts allows for the development of intuitive understanding. He also highlights the potential of deep learning systems to mimic human-like intuitive insights, as seen in AI advancements like AlphaZero's novel chess strategies.

### Takeaways

- ๐ Mathematics is viewed as a set of tools for exploring idealized worlds with precise relationships that can be applied to the real world.
- ๐ The concept of mathematics involves idealized objects like triangles, which can be used to understand and create real-world structures such as bridges.
- ๐ Mathematics provides a framework for deriving facts with certainty, exemplified by the congruence of triangles based on angle and side measurements.
- ๐ It enables complex tasks such as launching matter from Earth to intersect with distant celestial bodies at a predicted time and date.
- ๐ Natural numbers, including zero, allow for exactness in counting, which is crucial for commerce, contracts, and record-keeping.
- ๐ง Mathematics is about developing systems for thinking about the properties and relations among sets of idealized objects.
- ๐ค The mathematical notation system is a means of expressing propositions about these properties, similar to how language is used for communication.
- ๐ก Intuition plays a significant role in mathematical discovery, with insights often arising from an intuitive understanding before formal proof.
- ๐ง โ๐ฌ Deep learning systems, like those trained on massive text datasets, can generate creative outputs, suggesting a potential for capturing the intuitive side of mathematics.
- ๐คนโโ๏ธ The combination of formal systems and intuitive understanding can lead to novel mathematical insights, as seen in the work of historical mathematicians.
- ๐ฒ Systems like AlphaZero demonstrate how neural networks can develop an intuitive understanding of complex games, leading to innovative strategies.

### Q & A

### What is the criticism Tristan Needham has towards a narrow formal view of mathematics?

-Tristan Needham criticizes the narrow formal view of mathematics by comparing it to studying music without ever hearing a note, suggesting that it misses the deeper understanding and appreciation of the subject.

### How does Jay McClelland describe the essence of mathematics?

-Jay McClelland describes mathematics as a set of tools for exploring idealized worlds, where objects exist with idealized properties and relationships can be characterized with precision, allowing for the derivation of other facts with certainty.

### What is an example of how mathematical concepts are applied in the real world?

-An example of applying mathematical concepts in the real world is the use of triangles in bridge construction and understanding how to measure heights, which is based on the properties of triangles.

### How does Jay McClelland relate the study of mathematics to the development of human thought?

-Jay McClelland suggests that the development of mathematical systems allows human beings to leverage the power of human thought, providing them with incredible leverage that they didn't have without these concepts.

### What is the significance of natural numbers in Jay McClelland's view of mathematics?

-Natural numbers, including zero, are significant in Jay McClelland's view as they provide the ability to be exact about quantities, such as counting sheep, which is fundamental to commerce, contracts, and record-keeping.

### What is the role of mathematical notation according to the transcript?

-Mathematical notation is described as a way of expressing propositions about the properties of idealized objects. It's a tool for communication, but not necessarily the deep representation of the ideas themselves.

### What does Jay McClelland suggest is a good way to model powerful mathematical reasoning?

-Jay McClelland suggests that a good way to model powerful mathematical reasoning is to combine intuitive, connectionist-like knowledge with the ability to reason and figure out new ideas that were not previously intuited.

### What is the importance of intuition in mathematical discovery according to the transcript?

-Intuition is crucial in mathematical discovery as it allows for the emergence of novel ideas and insights, which can then be rigorously proven through logical steps.

### How does Jay McClelland view the potential of deep learning systems in relation to mathematical cognition?

-Jay McClelland views deep learning systems as potentially capable of capturing the intuitive side of mathematical cognition, as evidenced by their ability to generate creative outputs from prompts, similar to how humans might discover new mathematical ideas.

### What is the historical significance of Euclid's Elements in the development of mathematical cognition?

-Euclid's Elements is significant as it laid out a coherent document that established the idea of a formal system within which mathematical objects were characterized and a system of inference was established for deriving new truths.

### How does Jay McClelland connect the development of formal thinking in mathematics to the immersion in experience?

-Jay McClelland connects the development of formal thinking to the immersion in experience by drawing a parallel to how we learn language and develop an intuitive understanding of the real world, suggesting that a similar process occurs with the development of formal mathematical thought.

### Outlines

### ๐ Mathematics as a Tool for Exploring Idealized Worlds

The speaker discusses the nature of mathematics as a set of tools designed to explore idealized worlds with precise relationships and properties. They liken the study of mathematics to studying music without ever hearing a note, emphasizing that mathematics is more than just symbol manipulation. The speaker uses the example of triangles to illustrate how mathematical concepts can be both idealized and applicable to the real world, such as in bridge building and space travel. They highlight the power of mathematics to provide humans with leverage and precision in understanding and manipulating the world around us.

### ๐ข The Role of Natural Numbers in Everyday Life and Commerce

In this paragraph, the speaker delves into the practical applications of natural numbers, including zero, in everyday life. They use a humorous anecdote about counting sheep to illustrate the fundamental importance of accurate counting in commerce and record-keeping. The speaker also touches on the abstract yet concrete nature of numbers, and how they enable the establishment of contracts and systems of notation. They emphasize the dual nature of mathematics as both an abstract, idealized system and a tool that is grounded in the concrete realities of human society.

### ๐ก The Intuitive and Creative Aspects of Mathematical Reasoning

The speaker explores the intuitive and creative processes involved in mathematical reasoning. They discuss the combination of intuitive knowledge and formal reasoning that allows mathematicians to make new discoveries. The speaker references a quote about the role of logic in proving and intuition in discovering, suggesting that mathematical cognition involves an interplay between these two facets. They also mention the potential of deep learning systems to mimic this intuitive aspect of mathematical thinking, drawing parallels between the creative output of neural networks and the flashes of insight experienced by great mathematicians.

### ๐ The Historical Development of Formal Mathematical Systems

This paragraph examines the historical development of formal mathematical systems, tracing their origins back to philosophers and logicians from over 3000 years ago. The speaker notes the evolution of formal thinking, which culminated in the establishment of coherent documents like Euclid's Elements. They suggest that the ability to think abstractly and formally is a result of immersion in experience, similar to how we learn language. The speaker also touches on the debate about whether systematic thought is an essential characteristic of the human mind or an acquired trait resulting from cultural influences.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### ๐กmathematical cognition

### ๐กidealized worlds

### ๐กcongruent triangles

### ๐กintuition

### ๐กformal systems

### ๐กneural networks

### ๐กdeep learning

### ๐กalpha zero

### ๐กintuitive discovery

### ๐กrigor

### Highlights

Mathematics is viewed as a set of tools for exploring idealized worlds with precise relationships.

Mathematical cognition involves understanding the properties and relations among idealized objects.

The real-world relevance of mathematics often emerges from these idealized worlds.

Triangles are used as an example of idealized objects with properties that can be precisely characterized.

Mathematical concepts like congruence allow for deriving certain facts with certainty.

The application of mathematical ideas is evident in practical fields such as bridge building and space exploration.

Natural numbers provide a foundation for exactness in everyday life and commerce.

The development of mathematical notation is crucial for the communication of mathematical ideas.

Intuition plays a significant role in mathematical discovery, allowing for the recognition of truths without explicit reasoning.

The combination of intuitive and formal reasoning is essential for mathematical progress.

Insightful moments in mathematics are often the result of a novel state of mind, influenced by simultaneous constraints.

Deep learning systems show promise in capturing the intuitive side of mathematical reasoning.

Neural networks trained with text can generate creative outputs, suggesting a form of intuitive understanding.

AlphaZero's approach to chess demonstrates the potential for neural networks to develop novel strategies.

The history of formal systems in mathematics dates back to ancient philosophers and logicians.

Formal thinking in mathematics is a result of immersion in experience and thought, similar to language acquisition.

Academic institutions have played a crucial role in the development of formal thinking modes.

The ability to think abstractly and formally is considered by some as an essential characteristic of the human mind.