# Lecture 01: Vectors in Machine Learning

TLDRThis lecture introduces essential vector concepts for machine learning, explaining vectors as mathematical objects with length and direction. It covers vector representation, addition, subtraction, dot product, magnitude, and the angle between vectors. The lecture also discusses linear combinations, linear independence, and orthogonality. Practical examples and Python implementations are provided to solidify the understanding of these fundamental concepts in the context of machine learning.

### Takeaways

- π Vectors are fundamental to machine learning, encoding both length and direction and are elements of a vector space.
- π Vectors can be represented as one-dimensional arrays, either as column or row vectors, and geometrically as points or arrows in n-dimensional space.
- βοΈ Vector addition and subtraction involve combining vectors of the same dimension by adding or subtracting their corresponding components.
- π’ The dot product of two vectors results in a scalar, found by multiplying corresponding components and summing the results.
- π The magnitude or length of a vector is calculated as the square root of the dot product of the vector with itself.
- π The angle between two vectors is determined using the dot product and the magnitudes of the vectors.
- π Linear combinations of vectors involve summing multiples of vectors scaled by scalar values, resulting in a new vector within the same space.
- ππ Linear independence means no vector in a set can be written as a linear combination of the others, whereas linear dependence indicates otherwise.
- π Orthogonal vectors are pairwise vectors with a dot product of zero, indicating they are at right angles to each other.
- ππ Orthonormal vectors are a special case of orthogonal vectors where each vector has a magnitude of one.
- π‘ Machine learning often uses feature vectors derived from data samples, such as the height and weight of employees in a dataset.

### Q & A

### What is the main topic of the first lecture in the course 'Essential Mathematics for Machine Learning'?

-The main topic of the first lecture is vectors, including their definition, representation, and the basic operations associated with them in the context of machine learning.

### What does the term 'vector' represent in mathematics?

-In mathematics, a vector is a mathematical object that encodes both a length and a direction, and is an element of a vector space.

### How are vectors typically represented in machine learning algorithms?

-Vectors are typically represented as one-dimensional arrays, which can be either a vertical array (column vector) or a horizontal array (row vector).

### What is the geometric interpretation of a vector in an n-dimensional space?

-Geometrically, vectors represent coordinates within an n-dimensional space, where n is the number of components in the vector, and can be visualized as an arrow with an origin, direction, and length (magnitude).

### What is the difference between a row vector and a column vector in terms of representation?

-A row vector is represented as a horizontal array of components, while a column vector is represented as a vertical array of components.

### How is the addition of two vectors performed in an n-dimensional space?

-The addition of two vectors in an n-dimensional space is performed by adding the corresponding components of each vector, resulting in a new vector that also belongs to the same vector space.

### What is a dot product and how is it calculated for two vectors?

-The dot product is a scalar value obtained by performing a component-wise multiplication of two vectors and then summing the results. It is calculated as the sum of the products of the corresponding components of the vectors.

### What is the magnitude or length of a vector and how is it found?

-The magnitude or length of a vector is a scalar value that represents the size of the vector. It is found by taking the square root of the dot product of the vector with itself.

### Can you explain the concept of linear combination of vectors?

-A linear combination of vectors is a new vector that is formed by multiplying each vector in a set by a scalar (alpha 1, alpha 2, ..., alpha k) and then summing these products. The resulting vector has the same dimension as the original vectors.

### What does it mean for a set of vectors to be linearly independent?

-A set of vectors is linearly independent if no vector in the set can be written as a linear combination of the other vectors. In other words, the only solution to the equation formed by their linear combination equaling the zero vector is when all the scalar multipliers are zero.

### What are the implications of orthogonal vectors and how are they defined?

-Orthogonal vectors are vectors that are mutually perpendicular to each other, meaning their dot product is zero. This implies that they are linearly independent, which is important in various mathematical and machine learning applications.

### Outlines

### π Introduction to Vectors in Machine Learning

The first lecture of the 'Essential Mathematics for Machine Learning' course introduces the concept of vectors, a fundamental building block in machine learning algorithms. The lecturer explains that vectors encode both length and direction and are elements of a vector space, which is a collection of objects closed under vector addition and scalar multiplication. Vectors are represented as one-dimensional arrays, either as column or row vectors, and geometrically represent coordinates in an n-dimensional space. The lecture also touches on the concept of a real vector of dimension n, denoted as RN, and the representation of a vector as an arrow with an origin, direction, and magnitude.

### π Vector Algebra: Addition, Subtraction, and Dot Product

This paragraph delves into the operations of vector algebra, specifically the addition and subtraction of vectors with the same dimension. The lecturer demonstrates these operations with examples in two-dimensional (R2) and three-dimensional (R3) spaces, explaining how to calculate the sum and difference of vectors by adding or subtracting their respective components. Additionally, the concept of the dot product is introduced as a scalar resulting from the component-wise multiplication of two vectors. Examples are given to illustrate the calculation of the dot product in R3, and the general formula for the dot product in an n-dimensional space (RN) is provided.

### π Vector Magnitude, Angle, and Linear Combinations

The lecturer discusses the magnitude or length of a vector, which is calculated as the square root of the dot product of the vector with itself. The concept of the angle between two vectors is introduced using the cosine inverse of the dot product divided by the product of their magnitudes. Furthermore, the paragraph covers the idea of linear combinations of vectors, where a new vector is formed by adding scaled versions of a set of vectors. The importance of scalars in this process is highlighted, and an example of a linear combination in R3 is provided to illustrate the concept.

### π Linear Independence and Orthogonal Vectors

The concept of linear independence is explored, where a set of vectors is considered linearly independent if no vector in the set can be written as a linear combination of the others. Conversely, if a non-trivial linear combination of vectors equals the zero vector, the set is linearly dependent. Examples in R2 and R3 are given to demonstrate both scenarios. The paragraph also introduces the notion of orthogonal vectors, which are vectors with a dot product of zero, indicating they are at right angles to each other.

### π Orthonormal Vectors and Machine Learning Applications

Building on the concept of orthogonal vectors, the lecturer introduces orthonormal vectors, which are not only orthogonal but also have a magnitude of one. An example set of orthonormal vectors in R2 is provided. The importance of these concepts in machine learning is highlighted through a brief discussion of feature vectors derived from a dataset of employee attributes. The lecturer also touches on the process of converting a set of linearly independent vectors into an orthogonal set, which will be further explored in subsequent lectures.

### π» Implementing Vector Operations in Python

The final paragraph of the script provides a brief overview of how to implement vector operations in Python using the NumPy library. The lecturer demonstrates how to define vectors as one-dimensional arrays, perform addition and subtraction, scalar multiplication, and calculate the length of a vector and the dot product of two vectors. The use of NumPy's linear algebra subpackage for these operations is emphasized, and the lecturer encourages further exploration of these concepts in future lectures.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### π‘Vectors

### π‘Vector Space

### π‘Magnitude

### π‘Dot Product

### π‘Linear Combination

### π‘Linear Independence

### π‘Linear Dependence

### π‘Orthogonal Vectors

### π‘Orthonormal Vectors

### π‘Feature Vectors

### Highlights

Vectors are fundamental entities in machine learning algorithms, representing both length and direction.

A vector space is a collection of objects that share common properties and are closed under vector addition and scalar multiplication rules.

Vectors can be represented as one-dimensional arrays, either as column vectors or row vectors.

In n-dimensional space, vectors are typically represented by coordinates, with simplified representations as arrows indicating origin, direction, and magnitude.

A real vector of dimension n is a vector in the vector space RN, where all components belong to the set of real numbers.

Vector addition and subtraction are performed by adding or subtracting corresponding components of vectors with the same dimension.

The dot product of two vectors results in a scalar, obtained by component-wise multiplication and summing the results.

The magnitude or length of a vector is calculated as the square root of the dot product of the vector with itself.

The angle between two vectors is determined using the dot product and the magnitudes of the vectors.

A linear combination of vectors is a new vector formed by summing the products of vectors and scalars.

Linear independence of vectors means that no vector in the set can be written as a linear combination of the others.

Linearly dependent vectors indicate that at least one vector can be expressed as a linear combination of the remaining vectors in the set.

Orthogonal vectors are a set of vectors where the dot product between any two distinct vectors is zero.

Orthonormal vectors are a special case of orthogonal vectors where each vector has a magnitude of one.

Orthogonality implies linear independence, but the converse is not necessarily true.

In machine learning, feature vectors are used to represent data samples with their corresponding features or attributes.

A brief implementation of vector operations in Python using the numpy package is demonstrated, showcasing addition, subtraction, scalar multiplication, and dot product.

The lecture concludes with an introduction to basic matrix algebra, setting the stage for further exploration in subsequent lectures.