# AS-Level Maths - 10 Minute Topic Revision - Trigonometry

TLDRThis 10-minute video offers a concise revision of trigonometry for year 12 students, focusing on the graphs of sine, cosine, and tangent functions, their properties, and solving trigonometric equations. The instructor emphasizes the importance of understanding trigonometric identities and demonstrates solving equations using these identities and graph analysis, including handling equations with multiple trigonometric functions and quadratic forms. The video also touches on adjusting solution ranges for equations involving multiples of the variable.

### Takeaways

- π Trigonometry is a challenging topic for many students transitioning to A-Level due to the complexity of equations involved.
- π Memorize the graphs of the three main trigonometric functions: sine, cosine, and tangent, as they are fundamental to understanding trigonometry.
- π Sine and cosine have a period of 360 degrees, while tangent has a period of 180 degrees, and each behaves differently with asymptotes and repeating patterns.
- π’ Trigonometric identities, such as tan(x) = sin(x)/cos(x) and the Pythagorean identity cosΒ²(x) + sinΒ²(x) = 1, are essential for solving equations.
- π§ To solve trigonometric equations, aim to simplify them into a form where one trigonometric function equals a number, using identities to achieve this.
- π When dealing with equations involving multiple trigonometric functions, use identities to reduce them to a single function, making them easier to solve.
- π Use the graph of the trigonometric function to find the solutions within a given range, often between 0 and 360 degrees.
- π For equations like tan(x) = β3, find the intersection points of the line y = β3 with the tangent graph to identify the solutions.
- π€ Use the symmetry of trigonometric graphs to find additional solutions, such as adding or subtracting the period from a known solution.
- π’ In equations with squared trigonometric functions, like sinΒ²(x), recognize the quadratic nature and factorize to find solutions.
- βοΈ When the trigonometric function has a coefficient, such as 2x, adjust the range of x to accommodate the new function's period before solving.
- π After finding solutions for the adjusted function, revert to the original variable by applying the necessary transformations, such as division.

### Q & A

### What is the main topic of this 10-minute revision video?

-The main topic of this video is trigonometry for year 12 students, focusing on the graphs of trigonometric functions, trigonometric identities, and solving trigonometric equations.

### Why do students often find trigonometry challenging in their transition to A-Level?

-Students find trigonometry challenging because of the increased difficulty level of the equations they need to solve at the A-Level compared to their previous studies.

### Which trigonometric functions' graphs are emphasized in the video?

-The video emphasizes the graphs of sine (sin x), cosine (cos x), and tangent (tan x).

### What is the period of the sine and cosine functions as mentioned in the video?

-The period of both the sine and cosine functions is 360 degrees, meaning they repeat themselves every 360 degrees.

### How is the tangent function different from the sine and cosine functions in terms of its graph?

-The tangent function is different because it has asymptotes at 90 degrees and every 180 degrees thereafter, and it has a period of 180 degrees, unlike sine and cosine which have a period of 360 degrees.

### What are trigonometric identities and why are they important in solving trigonometric equations?

-Trigonometric identities are equations that are true for every value of x. They are important because they allow us to simplify and transform complex trigonometric equations into a form that is easier to solve.

### What is the process for solving a trigonometric equation like sin x = 1/3?

-The process involves using trigonometric identities to simplify the equation into a form where a single trigonometric function equals a number, and then using the graph of that function to find the solutions within a given range, typically 0 to 360 degrees.

### How can the identity tan x = sin x / cos x be used to simplify a trigonometric equation?

-This identity can be used to combine sine and cosine terms in an equation into a single tangent function, which can then be solved by finding the angle where the tangent function equals the given value.

### What is a common mistake students make when solving trigonometric equations with multiple trigonometric functions?

-A common mistake is not using trigonometric identities to simplify the equation into a form with a single trigonometric function, which makes it difficult to find solutions.

### Why is it necessary to adjust the range when solving trigonometric equations with variables inside the trigonometric function?

-Adjusting the range is necessary because the variable inside the function affects the period and the range of possible solutions. For example, if the equation involves 2x, the range of solutions for x must be adjusted accordingly.

### How can the symmetry of trigonometric functions be used to find additional solutions once an initial solution is found?

-The symmetry of trigonometric functions, such as the periodic nature of sine and cosine, can be used to find additional solutions by adding or subtracting multiples of the function's period from the initial solution.

### Outlines

### π Introduction to Advanced Trigonometry

This paragraph introduces a 10-minute revision focused on year 12 trigonometry, a topic often found challenging by students transitioning to A-level due to the complexity of equations involved. The instructor emphasizes the importance of understanding the graphs of the three main trigonometric functions: sine, cosine, and tangent. These functions have specific periods and behaviors, with sine and cosine repeating every 360 degrees and tangent repeating every 180 degrees. The instructor also mentions trigonometric identities, which are essential for solving trigonometric equations, and outlines the process of solving such equations by simplifying them to a form where a single trigonometric function equals a number.

### π Solving Trigonometric Equations Using Graphs

The second paragraph delves into solving trigonometric equations, starting with an example where sine equals a fraction. The instructor demonstrates how to use trigonometric identities to simplify the equation into a more manageable form, such as tan theta equals root 3. By graphing and understanding the behavior of the tangent function, the instructor shows how to find solutions within a given range, in this case, between 0 and 360 degrees. The process involves using the graph to find intersections and using symmetry to find additional solutions, resulting in multiple solutions for the equation.

### π Quadratic Trigonometric Equations and Symmetry

This paragraph discusses solving more complex trigonometric equations involving both sine and cosine functions. The instructor uses an example with sine and cosine squared to illustrate how to transform the equation into a quadratic form that can be factored. By recognizing the relationship between sine and cosine and using the Pythagorean identity, the instructor simplifies the equation to find solutions for sine x equal to zero and sine x equal to one over root two. The solutions are then found using the properties of the sine function graph and its symmetries, yielding a set of solutions within the specified range.

### π Adjusting Range for Multiple Angle Trigonometry

The final paragraph addresses the issue of adjusting the solution range when dealing with multiple angle trigonometric equations, such as when the angle is doubled. The instructor explains the need to first determine the range of the new function and then solve for the adjusted angle before converting back to the original variable. Using an example with cosine, the instructor demonstrates how to find all solutions within the new range and then correctly scale them back to the original variable, ensuring that all solutions are within the appropriate range.

### Mindmap

### Keywords

### π‘Trigonometry

### π‘Trigonometric functions

### π‘Period

### π‘Asymptotes

### π‘Identities

### π‘Trig equations

### π‘Solving trig equations

### π‘Inverse trigonometric functions

### π‘Symmetries

### π‘Quadratic trig equation

### π‘Range

### Highlights

Introduction to the difficulty of Year 12 trigonometry and its transition from GCSE.

Importance of knowing the graphs of sine, cosine, and tangent functions like the back of your hand.

Explanation of the periodic nature of trigonometric functions: sine and cosine have a period of 360 degrees, while tangent has a period of 180 degrees.

Definition and importance of trigonometric identities, such as tan(x) = sin(x) / cos(x) and sin^2(x) + cos^2(x) = 1.

Introduction to solving trigonometric equations, starting with simple forms like sin(x) = 1/3.

Technique for handling complex trigonometric equations by transforming them into simpler forms using identities.

Example of transforming a trigonometric equation with multiple functions into a single function form using identities.

Use of trigonometric graphs to find solutions within a specified range (0 to 360 degrees).

Explanation of the CAST diagram and an alternative approach using graph symmetries.

Step-by-step solution of a trigonometric equation, demonstrating the use of the tangent graph and inverse trigonometric functions.

Introduction to solving trigonometric equations with squared terms, transforming them into quadratic equations.

Example of solving a quadratic trigonometric equation by factoring and finding solutions for sine(x).

Handling trigonometric equations involving 2x by adjusting the range before solving.

Detailed example of solving an equation with 2x by extending the range and finding all solutions before dividing by 2.

Conclusion and summary of key techniques for solving Year 12 trigonometric equations.

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